public class MQCoder extends Object
The type of length calculation and termination can be chosen at construction time.  Tricks that have been tried to improve speed  1) Merging Qe and mPS and doubling the lookup tables Merge the mPS into Qe, as the sign bit (if Qe>=0 the sense of MPS is 0, if Qe<0 the sense is 1), and double the lookup tables. The first half of the lookup tables correspond to Qe>=0 (i.e. the sense of MPS is 0) and the second half to Qe<0 (i.e. the sense of MPS is 1). The nLPS lookup table is modified to incorporate the changes in the sense of MPS, by making it jump from the first to the second half and viceversa, when a change is specified by the swicthLM lookup table. See JPEG book, section 13.2, page 225. There is NO speed improvement in doing this, actually there is a slight decrease, probably due to the fact that often Q has to be negated. Also the fact that a brach of the type "if (bit==mPS[li])" is replaced by two simpler braches of the type "if (bit==0)" and "if (q<0)" may contribute to that. 2) Removing cT It is possible to remove the cT counter by setting a flag bit in the high bits of the C register. This bit will be automatically shifted left whenever a renormalization shift occurs, which is equivalent to decreasing cT. When the flag bit reaches the sign bit (leftmost bit), which is equivalenet to cT==0, the byteOut() procedure is called. This test can be done efficiently with "c<0" since C is a signed quantity. Care must be taken in byteOut() to reset the bit in order to not interfere with other bits in the C register. See JPEG book, page 228. There is NO speed improvement in doing this. I don't really know why since the number of operations whenever a renormalization occurs is decreased. Maybe it is due to the number of extra operations in the byteOut(), terminate() and getNumCodedBytes() procedures. 3) Change the convention of MPS and LPS. Making the LPS interval be above the MPS interval (MQ coder convention is the opposite) can reduce the number of operations along the MPS path. In order to generate the same bit stream as with the MQ convention the output bytes need to be modified accordingly. The basic rule for this is that C = (C'^0xFF...FF)A, where C is the codestream for the MQ convention and C' is the codestream generated by this other convention. Note that this affects bitstuffing as well. This has not been tested yet. 4) Removing normalization while loop on MPS path Since in the MPS path Q is guaranteed to be always greater than 0x4000 (decimal 0.375) it is never necessary to do more than 1 renormalization shift. Therefore the test of the while loop, and the loop itself, can be removed. 5) Simplifying test on A register Since A is always less than or equal to 0xFFFF, the test "(a & 0x8000)==0" can be replaced by the simplete test "a < 0x8000". This test is simpler in Java since it involves only 1 operation (although the original test can be converted to only one operation by smart JustInTime compilers) This change has been integrated in the decoding procedures. 6) Speedup mode Implemented a method that uses the speedup mode of the MQcoder if possible. This should greately improve performance when coding long runs of MPS symbols that have high probability. However, to take advantage of this, the entropy coder implementation has to explicetely use it. The generated bit stream is the same as if no speedup mode would have been used. Implemented but performance not tested yet. 7) Multiplesymbol coding Since the time spent in a method call is nonnegligable, coding several symbols with one method call reduces the overhead per coded symbol. The decodeSymbols() method implements this. However, to take advantage of it, the implementation of the entropy coder has to explicitely use it. Implemented but performance not tested yet.
Modifier and Type  Field and Description 

static int 
LENGTH_LAZY
Identifier for the lazy length calculation.

static int 
LENGTH_LAZY_GOOD
Identifier for a very simple length calculation.

static int 
LENGTH_NEAR_OPT
Identifier for the near optimal length calculation.

static int 
TERM_EASY
The identifier for the easy termination that is simpler than the
'TERM_NEAR_OPT' one but slightly less efficient.

static int 
TERM_FULL
The identifier fort the termination that uses a full flush.

static int 
TERM_NEAR_OPT
The identifier for the termination that uses the near optimal length
calculation to terminate the arithmetic codewrod

static int 
TERM_PRED_ER
The identifier for the predictable termination policy for error
resilience.

Constructor and Description 

MQCoder(ByteOutputBuffer oStream,
int nrOfContexts,
int[] init)
Instantiates a new MQcoder, with the specified number of contexts and
initial states.

Modifier and Type  Method and Description 

void 
codeSymbol(int bit,
int context)
This function performs the arithmetic encoding of one symbol.

void 
codeSymbols(int[] bits,
int[] cX,
int n)
This function performs the arithmetic encoding of several symbols
together.

void 
fastCodeSymbols(int bit,
int ctxt,
int n)
This method performs the coding of the symbol 'bit', using context
'ctxt', 'n' times, using the MQcoder speedup mode if possible.

void 
finishLengthCalculation(int[] rates,
int n)
Terminates the calculation of the required length for each coding
pass.

int 
getNumCodedBytes()
Returns the number of bytes that are necessary from the compressed
output stream to decode all the symbols that have been coded this
far.

int 
getNumCtxts()
Returns the number of contexts in the arithmetic coder.

void 
reset()
Reinitializes the MQ coder and the underlying 'ByteOutputBuffer' buffer
as if a new object was instantaited.

void 
resetCtxt(int c)
Resets a context to the original probability distribution, and sets its
more probable symbol to 0.

void 
resetCtxts()
Resets all contexts to their original probability distribution and sets
all more probable symbols to 0.

void 
setLenCalcType(int ltype)
Set the length calculation type to the specified type

void 
setTermType(int ttype)
Set termination type to the specified type

int 
terminate()
This function flushes the remaining encoded bits and makes sure that
enough information is written to the bit stream to be able to finish
decoding, and then it reinitializes the internal state of the MQ coder
but without modifying the context states.

public static final int LENGTH_LAZY
public static final int LENGTH_LAZY_GOOD
public static final int LENGTH_NEAR_OPT
public static final int TERM_FULL
public static final int TERM_NEAR_OPT
public static final int TERM_EASY
public static final int TERM_PRED_ER
public MQCoder(ByteOutputBuffer oStream, int nrOfContexts, int[] init)
oStream
 where to output the compressed datanrOfContexts
 The number of contexts usedinit
 The initial state for each context. A reference is kept to
this array to reinitialize the contexts whenever 'reset()' or
'resetCtxts()' is called.public void setLenCalcType(int ltype)
ltype
 The type of length calculation to use. One of
'LENGTH_LAZY', 'LENGTH_LAZY_GOOD' or 'LENGTH_NEAR_OPT'.public void setTermType(int ttype)
ttype
 The type of termination to use. One of 'TERM_FULL',
'TERM_NEAR_OPT', 'TERM_EASY' or 'TERM_PRED_ER'.public final void fastCodeSymbols(int bit, int ctxt, int n)
If the symbol 'bit' is the current more probable symbol (MPS) and qe[ctxt]<=0x4000, and (A0x8000)>=qe[ctxt], speedup mode will be used. Otherwise the normal mode will be used. The speedup mode can significantly improve the speed of arithmetic coding when several MPS symbols, with a high probability distribution, must be coded with the same context. The generated bit stream is the same as if the normal mode was used.
This method is also faster than the 'codeSymbols()' and 'codeSymbol()' ones, for coding the same symbols with the same context several times, when speedup mode can not be used, although not significantly.
bit
 The symbol do code, 0 or 1.ctxt
 The context to us in coding the symboln
 The number of times that the symbol must be coded.public final void codeSymbols(int[] bits, int[] cX, int n)
The advantage of using this function is that the cost of the method call is amortized by the number of coded symbols per method call.
Each context has a current MPS and an index describing what the current probability is for the LPS. Each bit is encoded and if the probability of the LPS exceeds .5, the MPS and LPS are switched.
bits
 An array containing the symbols to be encoded. Valid
symbols are 0 and 1.cX
 The context for each of the symbols to be encodedn
 The number of symbols to encode.public final void codeSymbol(int bit, int context)
Each context has a current MPS and an index describing what the current probability is for the LPS. Each bit is encoded and if the probability of the LPS exceeds .5, the MPS and LPS are switched.
bit
 The symbol to be encoded, must be 0 or 1.context
 the context with which to encode the symbol.public int terminate()
After calling this method the 'finishLengthCalculation()' method should be called, after cmopensating the returned length for the length of previous coded segments, so that the length calculation is finalized.
The type of termination used depends on the one specified at the constructor.
public final int getNumCtxts()
public final void resetCtxt(int c)
c
 The number of the context (it starts at 0).public final void resetCtxts()
public final int getNumCodedBytes()
The values returned by this method are then to be used in finishing the length calculation with the 'finishLengthCalculation()' method, after compensation of the offset in the number of bytes due to previous terminated segments.
This method should not be called if the current coding pass is to be terminated. The 'terminate()' method should be called instead.
The calculation is done based on the type of length calculation specified at the constructor.
public final void reset()
public void finishLengthCalculation(int[] rates, int n)
The values in 'rates' must have been compensated for any offset due to previous terminated segments, so that the correct index to the stored coded data is used.
rates
 The array containing the values returned by
'getNumCodedBytes()' for each coding pass.n
 The index in the 'rates' array of the last terminated length.Copyright © 2014 Open Microscopy Environment